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Knowledge graphs are powerful frameworks for organizing, linking, and sharing data with universal meaning. There is an ongoing debate about which graph data model is best, and in this blog post, we’ll explore why RDF (Resource Description Framework) stands out as the superior choice for building more sustainable and scalable knowledge graphs over LPG (Labeled Property Graphs). Let’s dive into the reasons that make RDF shine as the backbone of knowledge graphs.
In RDF, data is represented as triples that consist of subject, predicate, and object. These are known RDF statements, i.e. “Alice is a Friend of Jack.” These triples form a directed graph, with the subject and object as nodes and the predicate as labeled edge. LPG uses nodes to represent data elements and labeled edges to connect nodes. Each edge represents a relationship between nodes, and nodes can have properties associated with them.
In the RDF world, the above graph would be comprised of the following set of triple statements:
Subject | Predicate | Object
Jill | Likes | Artwork
Jill | Is a Friend of | Jack
Jack | Is a Friend of | Kevin
Kevin | Likes | Artwork
There are some key differences that make RDF a better choice for enterprise knowledge graphs. Let’s explore:
While LPGs can certainly be useful for graph analytics use cases, they lack key features to make data accessible and useful when it comes to the need for interoperability and scale. Specifically, LPGs lack robust support for ontologies, schema standardization, and semantic standards – all characteristics of a sustainable knowledge graph initiative. Let’s explore:
It’s worth exploring the distinctive advantages of labelled property graphs (LPGs) within specific contexts.
Properties of Properties:In the world of LPGs, edges can bear their own properties, allowing for the inclusion of valuable metadata such as the source of information, date of assertion, and confidence level. This can be emulated with objects in standard RDF but unfortunately there is a performance cost. A better approach is RDF-* and SPARQL-*, which is about to be standardized, and is already supported by several RDF databases.
Property Path Discovery:
LGPs have an advantageous ability to traverse the shortest path between two nodes, which is valuable for unraveling complex relationships and uncovering hidden insights. While this may not be a pivotal concern for all domains, it holds particular significance for those where relationships are multi-faceted and require in-depth exploration. This is only important for certain domains, such as social networks, so it is of limited importance. However, there is nothing about property graphs that is special here, as it’s just a function of the query language. Unfortunately, SPARQL doesn’t include this, but any RDF database (including Fluree) can implement this operation, if the application demands for it.
It’s important to note that LPGs shine brightest in these limited scenarios where edge properties and path discovery are paramount. The beauty of the RDF ecosystem lies in its versatility and adaptability. The introduction of RDF-* and SPARQL-* speaks to the growing recognition of these specialized features within the RDF paradigm.
When it comes to data management, choosing the right tool for the job is best practice. If your graph use case is heavily analytical within a closed environment and demands “properties of properties,” LGP may play a role. But if your knowledge graph demands interoperability, integration, and sharing across boundaries, RDF is the clear format of choice to future-proof your data across its value chain.
The most valuable knowledge graphs are flexible and dynamic, adapting to new data types, consumer patterns, and business requirements. To meet these demands, Knowledge Graphs must leverage the benefits of semantic standards and “open world” assumptions that RDF provides.
If you’re looking for a native RDF-native graph database, Fluree is an excellent choice for knowledge graph initiatives. With Fluree, your knowledge graph can expand across domains, power any number of applications, and extend both “read” and “write” capabilities to permissioned users.
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Partner, Analytic Strategy Partners; Frederick H. Rawson Professor in Medicine and Computer Science, University of Chicago and Chief of the Section of Biomedical Data Science in the Department of Medicine
Robert Grossman has been working in the field of data science, machine learning, big data, and distributed computing for over 25 years. He is a faculty member at the University of Chicago, where he is the Jim and Karen Frank Director of the Center for Translational Data Science. He is the Principal Investigator for the Genomic Data Commons, one of the largest collections of harmonized cancer genomics data in the world.
He founded Analytic Strategy Partners in 2016, which helps companies develop analytic strategies, improve their analytic operations, and evaluate potential analytic acquisitions and opportunities. From 2002-2015, he was the Founder and Managing Partner of Open Data Group (now ModelOp), which was one of the pioneers scaling predictive analytics to large datasets and helping companies develop and deploy innovative analytic solutions. From 1996 to 2001, he was the Founder and CEO of Magnify, which is now part of Lexis-Nexis (RELX Group) and provides predictive analytics solutions to the insurance industry.
Robert is also the Chair of the Open Commons Consortium (OCC), which is a not-for-profit that manages and operates cloud computing infrastructure to support scientific, medical, health care and environmental research.
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Founder, DataStraits Inc., Chief Revenue Officer, 3i Infotech Ltd
Sudeep Nadkarni has decades of experience in scaling managed services and hi-tech product firms. He has driven several new ventures and corporate turnarounds resulting in one IPO and three $1B+ exits. VC/PE firms have entrusted Sudeep with key executive roles that include entering new opportunity areas, leading global sales, scaling operations & post-merger integrations.
Sudeep has broad international experience having worked, lived, and led firms operating in US, UK, Middle East, Asia & Africa. He is passionate about bringing innovative business products to market that leverage web 3.0 technologies and have embedded governance risk and compliance.
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CEO, Data4Real LLC
Julia Bardmesser is a technology, architecture and data strategy executive, board member and advisor. In addition to her role as CEO of Data4Real LLC, she currently serves as Chair of Technology Advisory Council, Women Leaders In Data & AI (WLDA). She is a recognized thought leader in data driven digital transformation with over 30 years of experience in building technology and business capabilities that enable business growth, innovation, and agility. Julia has led transformational initiatives in many financial services companies such as Voya Financial, Deutsche Bank Citi, FINRA, Freddie Mac, and others.
Julia is a much sought-after speaker and mentor in the industry, and she has received recognition across the industry for her significant contributions. She has been named to engatica 2023 list of World’s Top 200 Business and Technology Innovators; received 2022 WLDA Changemaker in AI award; has been named to CDO Magazine’s List of Global Data Power Wdomen three years in the row (2020-2022); named Top 150 Business Transformation Leader by Constellation Research in 2019; and recognized as the Best Data Management Practitioner by A-Team Data Management Insight in 2017.
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Senior Advisor, Board Member, Strategic Investor
After nine years leading the rescue and turnaround of Banco del Progreso in the Dominican Republic culminating with its acquisition by Scotiabank (for a 2.7x book value multiple), Mark focuses on advisory relationships and Boards of Directors where he brings the breadth of his prior consulting and banking/payments experience.
In 2018, Mark founded Alberdi Advisory Corporation where he is engaged in advisory services for the biotechnology, technology, distribution, and financial services industries. Mark enjoys working with founders of successful businesses as well as start-ups and VC; he serves on several Boards of Directors and Advisory Boards including MPX – Marco Polo Exchange – providing world-class systems and support to interconnect Broker-Dealers and Family Offices around the world and Fluree – focusing on web3 and blockchain. He is actively engaged in strategic advisory with the founder and Executive Committee of the Biotechnology Institute of Spain with over 50 patents and sales of its world-class regenerative therapies in more than 30 countries.
Prior work experience includes leadership positions with MasterCard, IBM/PwC, Kearney, BBVA and Citibank. Mark has worked in over 30 countries – extensively across Europe and the Americas as well as occasional experiences in Asia.
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Chair of the Board, Enterprise Data Management Council
Peter Serenita was one of the first Chief Data Officers (CDOs) in financial services. He was a 28-year veteran of JPMorgan having held several key positions in business and information technology including the role of Chief Data Officer of the Worldwide Securities division. Subsequently, Peter became HSBC’s first Group Chief Data Officer, focusing on establishing a global data organization and capability to improve data consistency across the firm. More recently, Peter was the Enterprise Chief Data Officer for Scotiabank focused on defining and implementing a data management capability to improve data quality.
Peter is currently the Chairman of the Enterprise Data Management Council, a trade organization advancing data management globally across industries. Peter was a member of the inaugural Financial Research Advisory Committee (under the U.S. Department of Treasury) tasked with improving data quality in regulatory submissions to identify systemic risk.
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Pawan came to Fluree via its acquisition of ZettaLabs, an AI based data cleansing and mastering company.His previous experiences include IBM where he was part of the Strategy, Business Development and Operations team at IBM Watson Health’s Provider business. Prior to that Pawan spent 10 years with Thomson Reuters in the UK, US, and the Middle East. During his tenure he held executive positions in Finance, Sales and Corporate Development and Strategy. He is an alumnus of The Georgia Institute of Technology and Georgia State University.
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Andrew “Flip” Filipowski is one of the world’s most successful high-tech entrepreneurs, philanthropists and industry visionaries. Mr. Filipowski serves as Co-founder and Co-CEO of Fluree, where he seeks to bring trust, security, and versatility to data.
Mr. Filipowski also serves as co-founder, chairman and chief executive officer of SilkRoad Equity, a global private investment firm, as well as the co-founder, of Tally Capital.
Mr. Filipowski was the former COO of Cullinet, the largest software company of the 1980’s. Mr. Filipowski founded and served as Chairman and CEO of PLATINUM technology, where he grew PLATINUM into the 8th largest software company in the world at the time of its sale to Computer Associates for $4 billion – the largest such transaction for a software company at the time. Upside Magazine named Mr. Filipowski one of the Top 100 Most Influential People in Information Technology. A recipient of Entrepreneur of the Year Awards from both Ernst & Young and Merrill Lynch, Mr. Filipowski has also been awarded the Young President’s Organization Legacy Award and the Anti-Defamation League’s Torch of Liberty award for his work fighting hate on the Internet.
Mr. Filipowski is or has been a founder, director or executive of various companies, including: Fuel 50, Veriblock, MissionMode, Onramp Branding, House of Blues, Blue Rhino Littermaid and dozens of other recognized enterprises.
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Brian is the Co-founder and Co-CEO of Fluree, PBC, a North Carolina-based Public Benefit Corporation.
Platz was an entrepreneur and executive throughout the early internet days and SaaS boom, having founded the popular A-list apart web development community, along with a host of successful SaaS companies. He is now helping companies navigate the complexity of the enterprise data transformation movement.
Previous to establishing Fluree, Brian co-founded SilkRoad Technology which grew to over 2,000 customers and 500 employees in 12 global offices. Brian sits on the board of Fuel50 and Odigia, and is an advisor to Fabric Inc.
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Eliud Polanco is a seasoned data executive with extensive experience in leading global enterprise data transformation and management initiatives. Previous to his current role as President of Fluree, a data collaboration and transformation company, Eliud was formerly the Head of Analytics at Scotiabank, Global Head of Analytics and Big Data at HSBC, head of Anti-Financial Crime Technology Architecture for U.S.DeutscheBank, and Head of Data Innovation at Citi.
In his most recent role as Head of Analytics and Data Standards at Scotiabank, Eliud led a full-spectrum data transformation initiative to implement new tools and technology architecture strategies, both on-premises as well as on Cloud, for ingesting, analyzing, cleansing, and creating consumption ready data assets.
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